By Lutz Hasse (auth.), Peter S. Liss, W. George N. Slinn (eds.)
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Additional resources for Air-Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles
In principle, the power laws for parallel and perpendicular eddy velocity components can be different, although there is a crosscoupling between eddy velocity components effected by pressure fluctuations. The question of how the eddy velocity components and turbulent exchange decreases on approaching the wall is of considerable interest, since molecular transport is so much more ineffective than turbulent transport, especially for heat and gases with small molecular diffusivities. A review of power laws near the wall is given by Monin and Yaglom (1965, Vol.
The Ri-number and similar numbers measure the rate of work done by or against the buoyant forces versus the rate of shear-production of turbulent energy (unstable, Ri < 0; stable, Ri > 0). Except for a very thin layer (a few millimeters deep) at the surface, where the influence of the molecular viscosity is felt, the motions in the atmosphere are always turbulent. Turbulence is very active as a transporting agent. This is seen when, by analogy to the molecular transport, the turbulent transport is described by aid of an eddy diffusivity K INTRODUCTORY METEOROLOGY AND FLUID DYNAMICS F Paz = - K 3mr 37 (12) where F is the flux of a certain property and mr is its mixing ratio Ikg/kgl.
With respect to atmospheric transport, it is also interesting to look at the global water balance. In units of 1000 cubic kilometers of water per annum(approximately 2 mm precipitation per annum),evaporation at the ocean amounts to 448 and precipitation to 411. The difference (37 units, which is of order 10% of the total evaporation) is carried over land. Over land 65 units are evaporated, and 102 are 3precipitated. With a water content of the atmosphere of 12400 km and a total precipitation rate of 513 units, the average residence time of water vapor in the atmosphere is about nine days.