'Ali Shari'ati and the Shaping of Political Islam in Iran by By (author) Kingshuk Chatterjee

By By (author) Kingshuk Chatterjee

This ebook tells the tale of ways Shari'ati built a language of political Islam, conversing in an idiom intelligible to the Iranian public and subverting the Shah's regime and its declare to legitimacy.

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Extra info for 'Ali Shari'ati and the Shaping of Political Islam in Iran (Middle East Today) (Hardback) - Common

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In the absence of significant industrial ventures independent of the state, economic development failed to be sustained. Urbanization continued nonetheless, stretching urban infrastructure beyond endurable limits. 60 By 1977, the Pahlavi regime became a victim of the very modernization that it saw as its raison d’être. In 1977–78, even the closest allies of the Shah began to switch loyalties. With almost every section of the Iranian people opposed to the Shah’s highhanded inefficiency, the Shah had only one hope of survival—total disunity among the forces of the opposition.

In higher education, the Tehran University was founded in 1934, followed by several other universities in the various provinces over the next four decades. After 1929, the government sponsored higher education of at least 100 students each year in different parts of Europe. Graduates from this educational apparatus mostly joined government service as office workers, administrators, skilled technicians, lawyers, doctors, and academics. 35 * * * The Pahlavi regime received widespread support in its bid to centralize authority by disarming and forcibly settling the various tribes, strengthening Iran’s armed forces, pursuing railway construction, and to an extent, even in its attempts to eliminate all distinctive communitarian affiliation in public life.

Their preferred solution, as in other Muslim societies, was to reform the society in the light of advances in the realm of knowledge, made in the west but adaptable anywhere. 63 If Islamic public discourse was to impede the progression of the civilization, then in the interests of the country such discourse had to be secularized in the manner of more advanced societies. Islam thus had to be banished from public life, and relegated to the personal sphere of the lives of Muslims, if that. The secular modernists attacked Iran’s traditional culture because of its various religious practices, tribalism, ethnic divisions, and communal sectarianism.

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