American Defenses of Corregidor and Manila Bay 1898–1945 by Mark A. Berhow

By Mark A. Berhow

The Philippines have been declared an American Territory on January four, 1899, and fortification development quickly started at the islands within the mouth of Manila Bay. one of the websites equipped have been fortress generators (Corregidor), fortress Frank, and the ambitious "concrete battleship" of fortress Drum. The defenses suffered consistent eastern bombardment in the course of global struggle II, resulting in the quit of yankee forces. In 1945 the forts have been manned through eastern squaddies decided to carry out to the sour finish. This identify info the fortifications of this key strategic situation, and considers either their effectiveness and ancient significance.

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8 To hurry the expedition along, Schley sent out the ships as they became ready. The Bear sailed ¤rst on April 24. The following day Schley transferred Chambers to the Alert to speed up her preparations, and recalled him to the Thetis just before departure. In his haste, Chambers forgot his cold weather clothing, but in letters to friends, he con¤dently stated that he expected to enjoy his trip to the North Pole. Privately he worried about an expedition he saw as disorganized and its ships overcrowded.

Cof¤n commanded the Alert and Lieutenant William H. Emory commanded the Bear. The expeditions’ of¤cers began arriving in New York in late March, and Schley assigned each ship an experienced civilian ice-master and at least one of¤cer with Arctic or Antarctic experience. His own ship included two-time Arctic survivor George Melville and Chambers. Senate debate on the expedition had been ¤erce. Many senators believed that Greely’s party had already died, a pessimism bolstered by the contemporaneous hearings on the Jeannette disaster.

Commissioned in 1875, she was an entirely new ship that shared hardly a timber or ¤tting with the original. When Chambers joined the ship, Chief Engineer James W. King had just completed his survey of the world’s navies. He considered the Marion and her ¤ve sister-ships to be “of the most value” to the navy after the Trenton, the only reasonably modern cruiser in the ®eet. 26 Chambers quickly impressed the Marion’s captain, Commander Francis M. Bunce, with his “personal gallantry,” attention to detail, and technical knowledge.

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